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Knowledge about pipe fitting

A fitting is used in pipe plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow. The term plumbing is generally used to describe conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in ordinary domestic or commercial environments, whereas piping is often used to describe high-performance (e.g. high pressure, high flow, high temperature, hazardous materials) conveyance of fluids in specialized applications. The term tubing is sometimes used for lighter-weight piping, especially types that are flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form


There are certain standard codes that need to be followed while designing or manufacturing any piping system
For example pipes need to conform to the dimensional requirements of :

ASME B36.10M - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
ASME B36.19M - Stainless Steel Pipe
ASME B31.3 2008 - Process Piping
The B31.3 code has requirements for piping found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals. This code specifies requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping. This Code is applicable to piping for all fluids including: (1) raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals; (2) petroleum products; (3) gas, steam, air and water; (4) fluidized solids; (5) refrigerants; and (6) cryogenic fluids.


The material with which a pipe is manufactured often forms as the basis for choosing any pipe
The bodies of fittings for pipe and tubing are most often of the same base material as the pipe or tubing being connected, for example, copper, steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). However, any material that is allowed by the plumbing, health, or building code (as applicable) may be used, but must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported, and the temperatures and pressures inside and outside of the system. For example, brass- or bronze-bodied fittings are common in otherwise copper piping and plumbing systems. Fire hazards, earthquake resistance, and other factors also influence choice of fitting materials.

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